In wine regions of France, the growing of wine grapes arose from a culture in which everything was done by hand. When vineyards were replanted after phylloxera, spacing between rows was often just sufficient for humans, and horses, to pass through, but not much wider than that. The great terroirs of Burgundy are a precious commodity, and those lucky few who own them try to get as much fine fruit as they can from the small amount of acreage they own.
Vineyards in Burgundy, Bordeaux and Champagne typically have about 10,000 vines per hectare (4,050 per acre), with vines spaced about one meter (3.28 feet) apart within and between rows. Here in the U.S., however, agriculture has been much more dominated by mechanization, and the width of rows in vineyards has typically been dictated by the size of tractors and other equipment used to work the vineyard. Here, vines are commonly placed eight feet apart within a row and 12 feet between rows, for a density of only about 1,080 vines per hectare.